Grammar Topic Search Results
- Introduction to punctuation
English4today Quick Guide to English Punctuation Punctuation is used to create sense, clarity and st Read more..
- Brackets and parentheses
Brackets and parentheses The difference between a ‘bracket’ and a ‘parentheses’ can be a bit confusi Read more..
- Capital letters and punctuation
Capital letters and punctuation See also The English4Today Grammar: Capitals (nouns) for how ca Read more..
- Hyphen and dash
Hyphen and dash Hyphen A hyphen joins two or more words together (e.g. x-ray, door-to-door) while a Read more..
Apostrophe The apostrophe probaly causes more grief than any of the other punctuation marks put toge Read more..
- Quotation marks
Quotation marks UsageAlthough you will still see the double quotation marks used to quote direct spe Read more..
- Colon and semi-colon
Colon and semi-colon Semi-colon The Semicolon The semicolon is somewhere between a weak full stop an Read more..
- Question mark
Question Mark Use the question mark: 1. At the end of all direct questions What is your name? Do you Read more..
- Exclamation mark
Exclamation mark The exclamation mark is used to express exasperation,astonishment or surprise or to Read more..
- Interrogative pronouns
Interrogative pronouns Interrogative pronouns assist in forming questions.There are five interrogati Read more..
- What are verb tenses?
What are verb tenses? What is a verb? A verb is an action that is taking place in a sentence. Here a Read more..
- List of verb tenses in English
List of verb tenses in English Introduction to Verb Tenses in English It is important to unders Read more..
- Simple Present
SIMPLE PRESENT (See also Verbs -‘Regular verbs in the simple present’) The simple present is used: T Read more..
- Simple Past
SIMPLE PASTThe simple past is used to talk about a completed action in a time before now. Duration i Read more..
- Present Continuous or Present Progressive
Present Continuous or Present Progressive 1. When we use the Present Continuous As with all tenses i Read more..
- Past Continuous
PAST CONTINUOUS When to use the Past Continuous The past continuous describes actions or events in a Read more..
- Present Perfect
Present Perfect 1. When to use the Present perfect The Present Perfect is used to indicate a link be Read more..
- Present Perfect or Simple Past?
Present Perfect of Simple Past?How to choose between the Present Perfect and Simple Past TensesAlway Read more..
- Past Perfect Tense
PAST PERFECTPast perfect, formThe Past Perfect tense in English is composed of two parts: the past t Read more..
- Past Perfect Continuous Tense
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS The past perfect continuous is composed of two elements – the past perfect o Read more..
- Present Perfect Continuous
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS When to use the Present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous Read more..
- Present perfect with ‘ever’, ‘never’, ‘already’, ‘yet’
Present perfect + ‘ever’, ‘never’, ‘already’, ‘yet’ The adverbs ever and never e Read more..
- Using ‘for’ and ‘since’ with the Present Perfect
Present Perfect + ‘for’ and ‘since’ Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before Read more..
- Future verb tenses
Future verb tenses: introduction There are a number of different ways of referring to the future in Read more..
- Simple Future
The Simple Future Simple future: form The simple future is composed of two parts: will / shall + the Read more..
- Future with present continuous
Future with present continuous 1. Present Continuous for the Future: Form See notes on form in secti Read more..
- Simple present for future events
Simple Present for future events SIMPLE PRESENT FOR FUTURE EVENTS Simple Present for Future Events: Read more..
- Future with going to
The Future with going to 1. Future with Going to – form This form is composed of three elements: the Read more..
- Future Continuous
Future Continuous FUTURE CONTINUOUS Future continuous, form The future continuous is made up of two Read more..
- Future Perfect
Future Perfect FUTURE PERFECT Future Perfect: Form The future perfect is composed of two elements: t Read more..
- To get + direct object
TO GET + direct object = to obtain, to receive, to buy: To obtain Examples She got he Read more..
- To get
TO GET ‘To get’ can be used in a number of patterns and has a number of meanings. TO GET + direct ob Read more..
- What is the infinitive?
THE INFINITIVE: FORM 1. Form The infinitive is the base form of a verb. It may be preceded by ‘to’ ( Read more..
- Using the infinitive
THE INFINITIVE FUNCTION The most common uses of the infinitive are: To indicate the purpose or inten Read more..
- Zero infinitive
THE ZERO INFINITIVE The zero infinitive is used: after most auxiliaries (e.g. must, c Read more..
- Negative infinitive
NEGATIVE INFINITIVE To form the negative infinitive, place not before the to- or Read more..
- Infinitive after question words
INFINITIVE AFTER QUESTION WORDS These verbs: ask, decide, explain, forget, Read more..
- Other forms of the infinitive
OTHER FORMS The infinitive can have the following forms: The perfect infinitive The continuous infin Read more..
- Verbs followed by the infinitive
VERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE A. The to-infinitive is used after the verb Read more..
- Verbs followed by a noun + infinitive
VERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY A NOUN + THE INFINITIVE B. These are the most common of the verbs th Read more..
- Verbs + ‘to’ infinitive, with or without noun
These are the most common of the verbs followed by a to-infinitive, with or without a noun. Exa Read more..
- Relative clauses
RELATIVE CLAUSES There are two different types of relative clause: A “defining” or identif Read more..
- How to form relative clauses
- Placing prepositions in relative clauses
WHERE TO PUT THE PREPOSITION IN A RELATIVE CLAUSEThere are often prepositions in relative clauses, a Read more..
- Non-defining relative clauses
NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES The information in these clauses is not essential. It tells us more ab Read more..
- The possessive form of nouns
THE POSSESSIVE FORM OF NOUNSForming the possessiveThe possessive form is used with nouns referring t Read more..
- Passive voice
THE PASSIVE VOICE How to use the Passive The passive voice is used to show interest in the person or Read more..
- How to form the passive
How to Form the Passive The passive voice in English is composed of two elements : the appropriate f Read more..
- ‘To get’ or ‘to have’ something done
GET / HAVE SOMETHING DONE Passive Voice This construction is passive in meaning. It may describe sit Read more..
- Active tenses and passive equivalents
PASSIVE TENSES AND ACTIVE EQUIVALENTS Notice that the tense of the verb to be in the passive voice i Read more..
- What are nouns?
NOUNS Nouns answer the questions “What is it?” and “Who is it?” They give names to things, peop Read more..
- The plural of nouns
THE PLURAL OF NOUNS Most nouns form the plural by adding -s or -es. Examples Singular Read more..
- Countable and uncountable nouns
COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Countable nouns are for things we can count Examples dog, horse Read more..
- Compound nouns
COMPOUND NOUNSFormationWords can be combined to form compound nouns. These are very common, and new Read more..
- Nouns and using capital letters
USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS WITH NOUNS Capital letters are used with: Names and titles of people Winston Read more..
NATIONALITIESCountry: I live in England.Adjective: He reads English literature.Noun: She is an Engli Read more..
- ‘-ing’ form: Gerund and Present Participle
The Gerund and the Present Participle: ‘ING’ Form INTRODUCTION The ‘-ing’ form of the verb Read more..
- Present Participle
THE PRESENT PARTICIPLEThe present participle of most verbs has the form base+ing and is used in the Read more..
- The Gerund
THE GERUND THE GERUND This looks exactly the same as a present participle, and for this re Read more..
- Verbs followed by the gerund
VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND The gerund is used after certain verbs. Ex Read more..
- Gerund or infinitive?
GERUND OR INFINITIVE? GERUND OR INFINITIVE? The two groups of verbs below can be followed eith Read more..
- Gerund or infinitive: Where there is a difference in meaning
GERUND OR INFINITIVE? Part B B. Verbs where there is a clear difference in meaning: Verbs marked wit Read more..
- Direct and indirect speech
DIRECT AND REPORTED SPEECH You can answer the question “What did he/she say?” in two ways: by repeat Read more..
- Tense changes with reported speech
Tense Changes When Using Reported Speech Normally, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in Read more..
- Reported speech: change of time and place
REPORTED SPEECH: CHANGE OF TIME AND PLACE Time/place references change when using reported speech Ex Read more..
- Question forms and reported speech
Question Forms and Reported Speech 1. Normal word order is used in reported questions, tha Read more..
- Orders, requests and suggestions
Reported speech: orders, requests & suggestions ORDERS, REQUESTS, SUGGESTIONS 1. When we wa Read more..
- Hopes, intentions and promises
REPORTED SPEECH: hopes, intentions & promises HOPES, INTENTIONS & PROMISES When we report an Read more..
- Summary or reporting verbs
Summary of reporting verbs Summary of reporting verbs Note that some reporting verbs may appear in m Read more..
FUNCTION AND CLASSES OF DETERMINERS Function Determiners are words placed in front of a noun to make Read more..
- The definite article: ‘the’
DEFINITE ARTICLE See also: exceptions to using the definite article ‘the’ THE Articles in English ar Read more..
- Exceptions to using the definite article ‘the’
EXCEPTIONS TO USING THE DEFINITE ARTICLE There is no article: with names of countries Read more..
- Indefinite articles: ‘a’,’an’
Indefinite articles: ‘a’,’an’ A / AN Use ‘a’ with nouns starting with a consonant Read more..
- This, that, these, those
THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE 1. Function The demonstratives this, that, these, those ,show Read more..
- Possessive pronouns and adjectives
THE POSSESSIVES Possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives show who the thing belongs to. PERSON Read more..
THE QUANTIFIERSQuantifiers are adjectives and adjectival phrases that give approximate answers to th Read more..
Numbers The Quantifiers: talking about numbers in English CARDINAL and ORDINAL NUMBERS The card Read more..
- Quantifiers with countable and uncountable nouns
Quantifiers with countable and uncountable nouns Adjectives and adjectival phrases that describe qua Read more..
- A few, few, a little, little
A few and few, a little and little These expressions show the speaker’s attitude towards t Read more..
- Some and any
Some and Any Some and any are used with countable and uncountable nouns, to describe Read more..
- Compound nouns with ‘some’,’any’, ‘no’
Compound nouns made with SOME, ANY and NO Some + -thing -body -one -where Any + No + Compound nouns Read more..
- Graded quantifiers
Graded QuantifiersThey function like comparatives and hold a relative position on a scale of increas Read more..
- Enough + noun
Enough + Noun Enough is placed before the noun, to indicate the quantity required or necessary: Read more..
- Distributives: all, both, half
These words refer to a group of people or things, and to individual members of the group. They show Read more..
- Pre-determiners: such, what, rather, quite
PRE-DETERMINERS SUCH, WHAT, RATHER, QUITE These words are normally placed before the indefinite arti Read more..
- Defining words: which, whose
DEFINING WORDS WHICH AND WHOSE In a statement, these words define or explain which thing or person i Read more..
- Question words: which, what, whose
QUESTION WORDS WHICH, WHAT, WHOSE In questions, these words ask which thing or person is being refer Read more..
- Difference words: other, another
DIFFERENCE WORDS OTHER, ANOTHER These words refer to something different, remaining, or additional. Read more..
- Distributives: each, every, either, neither
These words refer to a group of people or things, and to individual members of the group. They show Read more..
- What is an adjective?
What is an adjective? Adjectives are words that describe or modify, or add meaning to, other words.T Read more..
- How to use adjectives
How to use adjectives Form of Adjectives Rules 1. Adjectives are invariable: They do not change Read more..
- The order of adjectives
Order of Adjectives Rules Where a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on the f Read more..
- Comparative and superlative adjectives
COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE OF ADJECTIVES FORMING THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE Using the comparat Read more..
- Irregular comparative and superlative adjectives
IRREGULAR COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES These adjectives have completely irregular comparat Read more..
- The plus superlative
The plus superlative THE + SUPERLATIVE Rule ‘the’ is placed before the superlative: Examples: H Read more..
- Comparison with than
Making a comparison with than COMPARATIVE + THAN To compare the difference between two people, thing Read more..
- As + adjective + as
AS + ADJECTIVE + AS Usage To compare people, places, events or things, when there is no differe Read more..
- Not as + adjective + as
NOT AS + ADJECTIVE + AS Difference can also be shown by using not so/as …as: Examples Mont Bl Read more..
- Comparisons of quantity showing difference
COMPARISONS OF QUANTITY To show difference: more, less, fewer + than The rule is: MORE Read more..
- Comparison of quantity showing no difference
COMPARISONS OF QUANTITY SHOWING NO DIFFERENCE Rules To show no difference: as much as , as Read more..
- What is an adverb?
Adverbs modify, or tell us more about other words, usually verbs: Examples The bus moved slowly Read more..
- How to form adverbs
How adverbs are formed Rules 1. In most cases, an adverb is formed by adding ‘-ly’ Read more..
- Comparative and superlative of adverbs
Adverbs: Comparative & Superlative Rule In general, comparative and superlative forms of adverbs Read more..
- Adverbs of manner
ADVERBS OF MANNER Rule Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens. They are usually p Read more..
- Adverbs of place
ADVERBS OF PLACERuleAdverbs of place tell us where something happens.They are usually placed after t Read more..
- Adverbs of degree
ADVERBS OF DEGREE Usage Adverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action, an adj Read more..
- List of adverbs of degree
List of common adverbs of degree This list has some of the most common adverbs of degree used in Eng Read more..
- Adverbs of certainty
Adverbs of Certainty Adverbs of certainty express how certain or sure we feel about an action o Read more..
- Viewpoint and commenting adverbs
VIEWPOINT AND COMMENTING ADVERBS There are some adverbs and adverbial expressions which tell us abou Read more..
- Interrogative adverbs
INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS The interrogative adverbs are: why, where, how, when They are u Read more..
- Relative adverbs
RELATIVE ADVERBS Rule The following adverbs can be used to join sentences or clauses. They replace t Read more..
- Adverbs of time
ADVERBS OF TIME Adverbs of Time Adverbs of time tell us when an action happened, but also Read more..
- Phrasal Verbs: Explanation
Phrasal verbs in English What is a phrasal verb? A phrasal verb is a group of words that functions Read more..
- Phrasal Verbs: List of useful phrasal verbs
Useful phrasal verbs in English See also: What is a phrasal verb? phrasal verb meaning example sente Read more..
- Irregular Verbs in English
List of the main irregular verbs in English View irregular verbs in their group (1,2, or 3) Group 1: Read more..
- Irregular Verbs Grouped
List of irregular verbs grouped You can also use the long list of the main irregular verbs in Englis Read more..
- Period or full stop
Period or full stop The period (known as a full stop in British English) is probably the simplest of Read more..
The comma There are some general rules which you can apply when using the comma. However, you w Read more..
- Capital letters
Capital letters are used with: Names and titles of people Winston Churchill Marilyn Monroe the Queen Read more..
Nationalities & RegionsHere is a list of the most common nationalities and regions showing the c Read more..