Grammar Topic Search Results

  • Introduction to punctuation

    English4today Quick Guide to English Punctuation Punctuation is used to create sense, clarity and st Read more..

  • Brackets and parentheses

    Brackets and parentheses The difference between a ‘bracket’ and a ‘parentheses’ can be a bit confusi Read more..

  • Capital letters and punctuation

    Capital letters and punctuation See also The English4Today Grammar: Capitals (nouns) for how ca Read more..

  • Hyphen and dash

    Hyphen and dash Hyphen A hyphen joins two or more words together (e.g. x-ray, door-to-door) while a Read more..

  • Apostrophe

    Apostrophe The apostrophe probaly causes more grief than any of the other punctuation marks put toge Read more..

  • Quotation marks

    Quotation marks UsageAlthough you will still see the double quotation marks used to quote direct spe Read more..

  • Colon and semi-colon

    Colon and semi-colon Semi-colon The Semicolon The semicolon is somewhere between a weak full stop an Read more..

  • Question mark

    Question Mark Use the question mark: 1. At the end of all direct questions What is your name? Do you Read more..

  • Exclamation mark

    Exclamation mark The exclamation mark is used to express exasperation,astonishment or surprise or to Read more..

  • Interrogative pronouns

    Interrogative pronouns Interrogative pronouns assist in forming questions.There are five interrogati Read more..

  • What are verb tenses?

    What are verb tenses? What is a verb? A verb is an action that is taking place in a sentence. Here a Read more..

  • List of verb tenses in English

    List of verb tenses in English Introduction to Verb Tenses in English It is important to unders Read more..

  • Simple Present

    SIMPLE PRESENT (See also Verbs -‘Regular verbs in the simple present’) The simple present is used: T Read more..

  • Simple Past

    SIMPLE PASTThe simple past is used to talk about a completed action in a time before now. Duration i Read more..

  • Present Continuous or Present Progressive

    Present Continuous or Present Progressive 1. When we use the Present Continuous As with all tenses i Read more..

  • Past Continuous

    PAST CONTINUOUS When to use the Past Continuous The past continuous describes actions or events in a Read more..

  • Present Perfect

    Present Perfect 1. When to use the Present perfect The Present Perfect is used to indicate a link be Read more..

  • Present Perfect or Simple Past?

    Present Perfect of Simple Past?How to choose between the Present Perfect and Simple Past TensesAlway Read more..

  • Past Perfect Tense

    PAST PERFECTPast perfect, formThe Past Perfect tense in English is composed of two parts: the past t Read more..

  • Past Perfect Continuous Tense

    PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS The past perfect continuous is composed of two elements – the past perfect o Read more..

  • Present Perfect Continuous

    PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS When to use the Present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous Read more..

  • Present perfect with ‘ever’, ‘never’, ‘already’, ‘yet’

    Present perfect + ‘ever’, ‘never’, ‘already’, ‘yet’ The adverbs ever and never e Read more..

  • Using ‘for’ and ‘since’ with the Present Perfect

    Present Perfect + ‘for’ and ‘since’ Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before Read more..

  • Future verb tenses

    Future verb tenses: introduction There are a number of different ways of referring to the future in Read more..

  • Simple Future

    The Simple Future Simple future: form The simple future is composed of two parts: will / shall + the Read more..

  • Future with present continuous

    Future with present continuous 1. Present Continuous for the Future: Form See notes on form in secti Read more..

  • Simple present for future events

    Simple Present for future events SIMPLE PRESENT FOR FUTURE EVENTS Simple Present for Future Events: Read more..

  • Future with going to

    The Future with going to 1. Future with Going to – form This form is composed of three elements: the Read more..

  • Future Continuous

    Future Continuous FUTURE CONTINUOUS Future continuous, form The future continuous is made up of two Read more..

  • Future Perfect

    Future Perfect FUTURE PERFECT Future Perfect: Form The future perfect is composed of two elements: t Read more..

  • To get + direct object

    TO GET + direct object = to obtain, to receive, to buy: To obtain Examples She got he Read more..

  • To get

    TO GET ‘To get’ can be used in a number of patterns and has a number of meanings. TO GET + direct ob Read more..

  • What is the infinitive?

    THE INFINITIVE: FORM 1. Form The infinitive is the base form of a verb. It may be preceded by ‘to’ ( Read more..

  • Using the infinitive

    THE INFINITIVE FUNCTION The most common uses of the infinitive are: To indicate the purpose or inten Read more..

  • Zero infinitive

    THE ZERO INFINITIVE The zero infinitive is used: after most auxiliaries (e.g. must, c Read more..

  • Negative infinitive

    NEGATIVE INFINITIVE To form the negative infinitive, place not before the to- or Read more..

  • Infinitive after question words

    INFINITIVE AFTER QUESTION WORDS These verbs: ask, decide, explain, forget,  Read more..

  • Other forms of the infinitive

    OTHER FORMS The infinitive can have the following forms: The perfect infinitive The continuous infin Read more..

  • Verbs followed by the infinitive

    VERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE A. The to-infinitive is used after the verb Read more..

  • Verbs followed by a noun + infinitive

    VERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY A NOUN + THE INFINITIVE B. These are the most common of the verbs th Read more..

  • Verbs + ‘to’ infinitive, with or without noun

    These are the most common of the verbs followed by a to-infinitive, with or without a noun. Exa Read more..

  • Relative clauses

    RELATIVE CLAUSES There are two different types of relative clause: A “defining” or identif Read more..

  • How to form relative clauses
  • Placing prepositions in relative clauses

    WHERE TO PUT THE PREPOSITION IN A RELATIVE CLAUSEThere are often prepositions in relative clauses, a Read more..

  • Non-defining relative clauses

    NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES The information in these clauses is not essential. It tells us more ab Read more..

  • The possessive form of nouns

    THE POSSESSIVE FORM OF NOUNSForming the possessiveThe possessive form is used with nouns referring t Read more..

  • Passive voice

    THE PASSIVE VOICE How to use the Passive The passive voice is used to show interest in the person or Read more..

  • How to form the passive

    How to Form the Passive The passive voice in English is composed of two elements : the appropriate f Read more..

  • ‘To get’ or ‘to have’ something done

    GET / HAVE SOMETHING DONE Passive Voice This construction is passive in meaning. It may describe sit Read more..

  • Active tenses and passive equivalents

    PASSIVE TENSES AND ACTIVE EQUIVALENTS Notice that the tense of the verb to be in the passive voice i Read more..

  • What are nouns?

    NOUNS Nouns answer the questions “What is it?” and “Who is it?” They give names to things, peop Read more..

  • The plural of nouns

    THE PLURAL OF NOUNS Most nouns form the plural by adding -s or -es. Examples Singular Read more..

  • Countable and uncountable nouns

    COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Countable nouns are for things we can count Examples dog, horse Read more..

  • Compound nouns

    COMPOUND NOUNSFormationWords can be combined to form compound nouns. These are very common, and new Read more..

  • Nouns and using capital letters

    USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS WITH NOUNS Capital letters are used with: Names and titles of people Winston Read more..

  • Nationalities

    NATIONALITIESCountry: I live in England.Adjective: He reads English literature.Noun: She is an Engli Read more..

  • ‘-ing’ form: Gerund and Present Participle

    The Gerund and the Present Participle: ‘ING’ Form INTRODUCTION The ‘-ing’ form of the verb Read more..

  • Present Participle

    THE PRESENT PARTICIPLEThe present participle of most verbs has the form base+ing and is used in the Read more..

  • The Gerund

    THE GERUND THE GERUND This looks exactly the same as a present participle, and for this re Read more..

  • Verbs followed by the gerund

    VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND The gerund is used after certain verbs. Ex Read more..

  • Gerund or infinitive?

     GERUND OR INFINITIVE? GERUND OR INFINITIVE? The two groups of verbs below can be followed eith Read more..

  • Gerund or infinitive: Where there is a difference in meaning

    GERUND OR INFINITIVE? Part B B. Verbs where there is a clear difference in meaning: Verbs marked wit Read more..

  • Direct and indirect speech

    DIRECT AND REPORTED SPEECH You can answer the question “What did he/she say?” in two ways: by repeat Read more..

  • Tense changes with reported speech

    Tense Changes When Using Reported Speech Normally, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in Read more..

  • Reported speech: change of time and place

    REPORTED SPEECH: CHANGE OF TIME AND PLACE Time/place references change when using reported speech Ex Read more..

  • Question forms and reported speech

    Question Forms and Reported Speech 1. Normal word order is used in reported questions, tha Read more..

  • Orders, requests and suggestions

    Reported speech: orders, requests & suggestions ORDERS, REQUESTS, SUGGESTIONS 1. When we wa Read more..

  • Hopes, intentions and promises

    REPORTED SPEECH: hopes, intentions & promises HOPES, INTENTIONS & PROMISES When we report an Read more..

  • Summary or reporting verbs

    Summary of reporting verbs Summary of reporting verbs Note that some reporting verbs may appear in m Read more..

  • Determiners

    FUNCTION AND CLASSES OF DETERMINERS Function Determiners are words placed in front of a noun to make Read more..

  • The definite article: ‘the’

    DEFINITE ARTICLE See also: exceptions to using the definite article ‘the’ THE Articles in English ar Read more..

  • Exceptions to using the definite article ‘the’

    EXCEPTIONS TO USING THE DEFINITE ARTICLE There is no article: with names of countries Read more..

  • Indefinite articles: ‘a’,’an’

    Indefinite articles: ‘a’,’an’ A / AN Use ‘a’ with nouns starting with a consonant Read more..

  • This, that, these, those

    THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE 1. Function The demonstratives this, that, these, those ,show Read more..

  • Possessive pronouns and adjectives

    THE POSSESSIVES Possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives show who the thing belongs to. PERSON Read more..

  • Quantifiers

    THE QUANTIFIERSQuantifiers are adjectives and adjectival phrases that give approximate answers to th Read more..

  • Numbers

    Numbers The Quantifiers: talking about numbers in English CARDINAL and ORDINAL NUMBERS The card Read more..

  • Quantifiers with countable and uncountable nouns

    Quantifiers with countable and uncountable nouns Adjectives and adjectival phrases that describe qua Read more..

  • A few, few, a little, little

    A few and few, a little and little These expressions show the speaker’s attitude towards t Read more..

  • Some and any

    Some and Any Some and any are used with countable and uncountable nouns, to describe Read more..

  • Compound nouns with ‘some’,’any’, ‘no’

    Compound nouns made with SOME, ANY and NO Some + -thing -body -one -where Any + No + Compound nouns Read more..

  • Graded quantifiers

    Graded QuantifiersThey function like comparatives and hold a relative position on a scale of increas Read more..

  • Enough + noun

    Enough + Noun Enough is placed before the noun, to indicate the quantity required or necessary: Read more..

  • Distributives: all, both, half

    These words refer to a group of people or things, and to individual members of the group. They show Read more..

  • Pre-determiners: such, what, rather, quite

    PRE-DETERMINERS SUCH, WHAT, RATHER, QUITE These words are normally placed before the indefinite arti Read more..

  • Defining words: which, whose

    DEFINING WORDS WHICH AND WHOSE In a statement, these words define or explain which thing or person i Read more..

  • Question words: which, what, whose

    QUESTION WORDS WHICH, WHAT, WHOSE In questions, these words ask which thing or person is being refer Read more..

  • Difference words: other, another

    DIFFERENCE WORDS OTHER, ANOTHER These words refer to something different, remaining, or additional. Read more..

  • Distributives: each, every, either, neither

    These words refer to a group of people or things, and to individual members of the group. They show Read more..

  • What is an adjective?

    What is an adjective? Adjectives are words that describe or modify, or add meaning to, other words.T Read more..

  • How to use adjectives

    How to use adjectives Form of Adjectives Rules 1. Adjectives are invariable: They do not change Read more..

  • The order of adjectives

    Order of Adjectives Rules Where a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on the f Read more..

  • Comparative and superlative adjectives

    COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE OF ADJECTIVES FORMING THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE Using the comparat Read more..

  • Irregular comparative and superlative adjectives

    IRREGULAR COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES These adjectives have completely irregular comparat Read more..

  • The plus superlative

    The plus superlative THE + SUPERLATIVE Rule ‘the’ is placed before the superlative: Examples: H Read more..

  • Comparison with than

    Making a comparison with than COMPARATIVE + THAN To compare the difference between two people, thing Read more..

  • As + adjective + as

    AS + ADJECTIVE + AS Usage To compare people, places, events or things, when there is no differe Read more..

  • Not as + adjective + as

    NOT AS + ADJECTIVE + AS Difference can also be shown by using not so/as …as: Examples Mont Bl Read more..

  • Comparisons of quantity showing difference

    COMPARISONS OF QUANTITY To show difference: more, less, fewer + than The rule is: MORE Read more..

  • Comparison of quantity showing no difference

    COMPARISONS OF QUANTITY SHOWING NO DIFFERENCE Rules To show no difference: as much as , as Read more..

  • What is an adverb?

    Adverbs modify, or tell us more about other words, usually verbs: Examples The bus moved slowly Read more..

  • How to form adverbs

    How adverbs are formed Rules 1. In most cases, an adverb is formed by adding ‘-ly’ Read more..

  • Comparative and superlative of adverbs

    Adverbs: Comparative & Superlative Rule In general, comparative and superlative forms of adverbs Read more..

  • Adverbs of manner

    ADVERBS OF MANNER Rule Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens. They are usually p Read more..

  • Adverbs of place

    ADVERBS OF PLACERuleAdverbs of place tell us where something happens.They are usually placed after t Read more..

  • Adverbs of degree

    ADVERBS OF DEGREE Usage Adverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action, an adj Read more..

  • List of adverbs of degree

    List of common adverbs of degree This list has some of the most common adverbs of degree used in Eng Read more..

  • Adverbs of certainty

    Adverbs of Certainty Adverbs of certainty express how certain or sure we feel about an action o Read more..

  • Viewpoint and commenting adverbs

    VIEWPOINT AND COMMENTING ADVERBS There are some adverbs and adverbial expressions which tell us abou Read more..

  • Interrogative adverbs

    INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS The interrogative adverbs are: why, where, how, when They are u Read more..

  • Relative adverbs

    RELATIVE ADVERBS Rule The following adverbs can be used to join sentences or clauses. They replace t Read more..

  • Adverbs of time

    ADVERBS OF TIME Adverbs of Time Adverbs of time tell us when an action happened, but also Read more..

  • Phrasal Verbs: Explanation

    Phrasal verbs in English What is a phrasal verb?  A phrasal verb is a group of words that functions Read more..

  • Phrasal Verbs: List of useful phrasal verbs

    Useful phrasal verbs in English See also: What is a phrasal verb? phrasal verb meaning example sente Read more..

  • Irregular Verbs in English

    List of the main irregular verbs in English View irregular verbs in their group (1,2, or 3) Group 1: Read more..

  • Irregular Verbs Grouped

    List of irregular verbs grouped You can also use the long list of the main irregular verbs in Englis Read more..

  • Period or full stop

    Period or full stop The period (known as a full stop in British English) is probably the simplest of Read more..

  • Comma

    The comma There are some general rules which you can apply when using the comma. However, you w Read more..

  • Capital letters

    Capital letters are used with: Names and titles of people Winston Churchill Marilyn Monroe the Queen Read more..

  • Nationalities

    Nationalities & RegionsHere is a list of the most common nationalities and regions showing the c Read more..

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